Stratigraphy

I trust that this gives you a feel for the possibilities or otherwise of the proposal. I believe I earlier saw reference to the plasma formation of petroleum like products If you could point me to where this might have been, or even if you have any unpublished thoughts on this, I would appreciate any help you might be able to provide. Thank you for the question. In response it can be said that plasma physics does have some suggestions on this matter. Plasma forms filaments, and frequently they will pinch because of an instability in the circling magnetic field. This pinch concentrates the plasma and forms balls of material, whether they be stars or planets. In this context, one other item is important.

Varves dating sedimentary strata

General Setting The Permian Basin region of New Mexico and west Texas provides an excellent opportunity to study the interrelationships of depositional facies, diagenetic alteration patterns, oil generation and migration, and ultimately, petroleum potential and production from carbonate reservoirs. The Guadalupe and Delaware Mountains, in particular, contain some of the finest outcrops of reef and reef-related rocks in the world.

It is also a region of stark, yet often spectacular, beauty and of rich history, both for Native Americans and later arrivals.

The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Lamoureux, March/April Introduction. Today’s archaeologist has a wide variety of natural, electro-magnetic, chemical, and radio-metric dating methodologies available to her that can be used to accurately date objects that are just a few hundred years old as well as objects that are a few million years old with high.

Member beliefs What most LDS have been taught in church and believe as truth The leaders of the church, as well as gospel doctrine teachers the world over, have taught that many Biblical events and beliefs that people have had for centuries are indeed true, historical events. Joseph Smith and other prophets have made statements that indicated that certain Biblical events were indeed historical and not merely parables.

Many of these Biblical traditions were believed as literal events by most of the general population in the s as well. Global Flood of Noah. Adam and Eve were the first humans. Dinosaurs were never alive on this earth, because there was no death before Adam. Age of the Earth is thousands instead of billions of years old. Evolution did not happen. Sun gets its light from Kolob.

Earth Science Chapter 29: Studying the Past

Alternating patterns of distinct laminae are commonly identified within glacial lake deposits and are generally interpreted in the following way: However, there is actually no empirical evidence to back the claim that varves form as annual deposits over extended periods of time. It appears then, that claiming a varve is an annual event is an assumption in itself; one steeped in uniformitarian thought, but not reality.

Geologists have known for quite some time that multiple laminae may form very rapidly.

Precambrian time – Precambrian geology: By international agreement, Precambrian time is divided into the Archean Eon (occurring between roughly billion years ago and billion years ago) and Proterozoic Eon (occurring between billion and million years ago). After the Precambrian, geologic time intervals are commonly subdivided on the basis of the fossil record.

Lithostratigraphy Chalk layers in Cyprus , showing sedimentary layering Variation in rock units, most obviously displayed as visible layering, is due to physical contrasts in rock type lithology. This variation can occur vertically as layering bedding , or laterally, and reflects changes in environments of deposition known as facies change. These variations provide a lithostratigraphy or lithologic stratigraphy of the rock unit.

Key concepts in stratigraphy involve understanding how certain geometric relationships between rock layers arise and what these geometries imply about their original depositional environment. The basic concept in stratigraphy, called the law of superposition , states: Chemostratigraphy studies the changes in the relative proportions of trace elements and isotopes within and between lithologic units. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios vary with time, and researchers can use those to map subtle changes that occurred in the paleoenvironment.

This has led to the specialized field of isotopic stratigraphy. Cyclostratigraphy documents the often cyclic changes in the relative proportions of minerals particularly carbonates , grain size, thickness of sediment layers varves and fossil diversity with time, related to seasonal or longer term changes in palaeoclimates. Biostratigraphy Biostratigraphy or paleontologic stratigraphy is based on fossil evidence in the rock layers.

Strata from widespread locations containing the same fossil fauna and flora are said to be correlatable in time.

Problems with a Global Flood

Godthelp in Hill, Robert S. White, , The Nature of Hidden Worlds: Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne. Michael Archer, Suzanne J. Gehling, Kathleen Grey, Guy M.

Geochronology – Nonradiometric dating: In addition to radioactive decay, many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a.

Let’s not kid ourselves. What this is all about is whether or not the Old Testament book of Genesis along with the rest of the Old Testament, and the New Testament is an accurate account of what happened around years ago with regard to a worldwide flood and about years ago with regard to Creation itself. Is the Bible accurate and true or is it just a book of allegorical stories?

Was the great majority of the world’s sedimentary strata laid down by a single Worldwide Deluge in a short amount of time, or is the evolutionary scenario of slow change, acting over eons of TIME and the associated Geological Time Chart with its millions and millions of years a more accurate account of Earth history and how we came to be?

This is also about God’s future judgment of mankind and the return of Jesus to rule over the Earth — that God and He created — and to which He compared to the Days of Noah and the Flood. Let’s Look at the Evidence: The following are 18 Evidences of either massive flooding and erosion, extremely rapid layering of strata, or direct evidence of a Worldwide Flood.

Geochronology

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous.

This site offers a virtual field trip to the classic Permian reef complex and other geologic features of the Guadalupe Mountains. It contains an introduction plus several roadlogs with diagrams, photographs, and movies, as well as an extensive bibliography in order to provide a balanced presentation for a geology student audience.

What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms? Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption. But, things just aren’t that easy. There are a number of potential problems with this interpretation of the fossil record.

For example, it is interesting to note that some general kinds of fossilized creatures are very generally found in the same relative vertical orientation, with respect to each other in the fossil record, that they would have naturally been found in during life. Single celled organisms make their first appearance in the lowest layers followed by multicelled ocean bottom-dwelling creatures like sponges and worms etc.

Higher up come creatures like bony fishes, then land plants and animals, then birds and larger land animals. Of course, this is a very general pattern and does not explain why certain creatures that lived on the bottoms of oceans, like trilobites, make their first appearance in the Cambrian Ma while other creatures that live on ocean bottoms, like crabs and lobsters, don’t appear until the beginning of the Cretaceous Ma. If the geologic column truly represents a series of closely spaced catastrophic burial events instead of long ages of time, how can this feature be explained?

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Several Christian ministries promote the idea that the earth is less than 10, years old, which they say comes from the Bible. In reality, the Bible makes no claim as to the age of the earth, although it does establish a minimum age. This page examines some of the history of the controversy—what the Bible actually says and does not say—and the scientific evidence surrounding the age of the earth.

The standard approach to looking at fossils in the geological column is to assume that lower is older. Since the geologic column represents millions of years of Earth’s history, then obviously the fossils in each of the layers must be the same age as the layer in which they are found. What is especially interesting is that the fossils do appear to show a progression from the most “simple” of.

Precambrian geology Major subdivisions of the Precambrian System By international agreement , Precambrian time is divided into the Archean Eon occurring between roughly 4. After the Precambrian, geologic time intervals are commonly subdivided on the basis of the fossil record. The paucity of Precambrian fossils, however, precludes the creation of small-scale subdivisions epochs and ages in this time period.

Instead, relative chronologies of events have been produced for different regions based on such field relationships as unconformities interruption in the accumulation of sedimentary rock due to erosion or nondeposition and crosscutting dikes intrusions of igneous rock that burrow through cracks in the original structures of surrounding rock. These field relationships, combined with the isotopic age determinations of specific rocks, allow for some correlation between neighbouring regions.

Likewise, they divide the Proterozoic Eon into the Paleoproterozoic 2. These definitions are based on isotopic age determinations. Oldest minerals and rocks The oldest minerals on Earth, detrital zircons from western Australia, crystallized about 4. They occur within sedimentary sandstones and conglomerates dated to about 3.

The rocks from which they came may have been destroyed by some kind of tectonic process or by a meteorite impact that spared individual zircon crystals. Perhaps their very absence is indicative of something important about early terrestrial processes. Comparisons with the Moon indicate that the Earth must have been subjected to an enormous number of meteorite impacts about 4 billion years ago, but there is no geologic evidence of such events.

Precambrian bedrock of the Canadian Shield rising out of Reindeer Lake, on the border between northeastern Saskatchewan and northwestern Manitoba. The age of these rocks was estimated using a radiometric dating technique that measures the ratio of the rare-earth elements neodymium and samarium present in a sample.

Problems with a Global Flood

The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Furthermore, when you consider that many archaeological sites will contain numerous types of artifacts that permit the use of multiple dating methodologies, a modern archaeologist can often employ cross-dating methodologies which can allow for extremely accurate dating as far back as 10, years in some regions.

Natural Dating Techniques A modern archaeologist has almost half a dozen natural dating techniques that she can apply in the field that she can use to quickly determine an approximate date range, which, in the cases of varve analysis and dendrochronology, can often be used to decrease the date range estimate to a matter of just a few years. One of the oldest natural dating techniques is geochronology, which is based on the principle of superposition — an object, or layer, on top must have been placed there at a later point in time.

The age of the earth can be measured by numerous different techniques, most of which provide just a minimum age. The absolute age of the earth has been most accurately measured through radioactive decay of its rocks.

Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Nonradiometric dating In addition to radioactive decay , many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a priori grounds whether such rates are representative of the past.

This is where radioactive methods frequently supply information that may serve to calibrate nonradioactive processes so that they become useful chronometers. Nonradioactive absolute chronometers may conveniently be classified in terms of the broad areas in which changes occur—namely, geologic and biological processes, which will be treated here. Geologic processes as absolute chronometers Weathering processes During the first third of the 20th century, several presently obsolete weathering chronometers were explored.

Most famous was the attempt to estimate the duration of Pleistocene interglacial intervals through depths of soil development. In the American Midwest, thicknesses of gumbotil and carbonate-leached zones were measured in the glacial deposits tills laid down during each of the four glacial stages. Based on a direct proportion between thickness and time, the three interglacial intervals were determined to be longer than postglacial time by factors of 3, 6, and 8.

To convert these relative factors into absolute ages required an estimate in years of the length of postglacial time. When certain evidence suggested 25, years to be an appropriate figure, factors became years—namely, 75, , , , and , years. And, if glacial time and nonglacial time are assumed approximately equal, the Pleistocene Epoch lasted about 1, , years. Only one weathering chronometer is employed widely at the present time.

Do Varves, Tree-Rings, and Radiocarbon Measurements Prove an Old Earth?

Paleomagnetic dating[ edit ] A sequence of paleomagnetic poles usually called virtual geomagnetic poles , which are already well defined in age, constitutes an apparent polar wander path APWP. Such path is constructed for a large continental block. APWPs for different continents can be used as a reference for newly obtained poles for the rocks with unknown age.

For paleomagnetic dating it is suggested to use the APWP in order to date a pole obtained from rocks or sediments of unknown age by linking the paleopole to the nearest point on the APWP. Two methods of paleomagnetic dating have been suggested 1 Angular method and 2 Rotation method.

Setterfield: Yes!That geology is in basic harmony with the Bible. What has happened was that the strata of the Himalayas was laid down under water in the period from the Cambrian (about million atomic years) to the Cretaceous (ending about 65 million atomic years ago).

How does a global flood explain angular unconformities? These are where one set of layers of sediments have been extensively modified e. They thus seem to require at least two periods of deposition more, where there is more than one unconformity with long periods of time in between to account for the deformation, erosion, and weathering observed. How were mountains and valleys formed?

Many very tall mountains are composed of sedimentary rocks. The summit of Everest is composed of deep-marine limestone, with fossils of ocean-bottom dwelling crinoids [ Gansser, ]. If these were formed during the Flood, how did they reach their present height, and when were the valleys between them eroded away? Keep in mind that many valleys were clearly carved by glacial erosion, which is a slow process. When did granite batholiths form? Some of these are intruded into older sediments and have younger sediments on their eroded top surfaces.

It takes a long time for magma to cool into granite, nor does granite erode very quickly. One formation in New Jersey is six kilometers thick. If we grant days for this to settle, and ignore possible compaction since the Flood, we still have 15 meters of sediment settling per day.

What is FISSION TRACK DATING? What does FISSION TRACK DATING mean? FISSION TRACK DATING meaning